In competitiveness of its automotive sector, Slovakia lags behind other V4 countries, according to a study by ZAP, the local automotive union. It looked at labor costs and innovations. The Slovak automotive sector’s labor productivity has risen 29% since 2010, but labor costs have surged 44%. A quarter of automotive firms in Slovakia planned expansion in 2018, but just 12% last year. As for innovations, 10% of staff in the German automotive sector work in research, but just 1% in Slovakia do. One of the reason is low government spending on science.