The state spent €426m on IT last year, the least since 2011, according to a report by the Deputy PM’s Office. Operating costs jumped 50% to €301m, while investments halved to just €125m. Investment spending peaked at €520m in 2015, owing to the drawdown of EU funds from the 2007-13 funding period before the end-2015 deadline. Running costs soared due to the expansion of the government’s cloud services. They will rise in coming years as new projects are completed and existing ones need servicing. IT spending is concentrated – the Finance Ministry accounted for €165m (it centrally procures software licenses for all public institutions), the Interior Ministry for €51m, and the Education Ministry for €33m.